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Showing posts from November, 2015

NEURON: using DREADDs to elucidate cholinergic signaling vis a vis Parkinson's Disease

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Nice paper --with the key chemogenetic experiment shown below and nice use of ChAT Cre




THE SCIENTIST: review of chemogenetic technology

Remote Mind Control Using chemogenetic tools to spur the brain into action By Kelly Rae Chi|November 1, 2015

Here.

CELL REPORTS: Bidirectional modulation of Raphe neuronal activity by DREADDs

A paper which confirms and extends our recent findings using FLOXED-DREADD mice rather than AAV-DIO-DREADD approach.

I note the term pharmacogenetic rather than chemogenetic but otherwise interesting.

"Despite the well-established role of serotonin signaling in mood regulation, causal relationships between serotonergic neuronal activity and behavior remain poorly understood. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find that selectively increasing serotonergic neuronal activity in wild-type mice is anxiogenic and reduces floating in theforced-swim test, whereas inhibition has no effect on the same measures. In a developmental mouse model of altered emotional behavior, increased anxiety anddepression-like behaviors correlate with reduced dorsal raphé and increased median raphé serotonergic activity. These mice display blunted responses to serotonergic stimulation and behavioral rescues through serotonergic inhibition. Furthermore, we identify opposing consequences of dorsal versus medi…

CELL: DREADDS for deconstructing serotonergic components of innate and learned fear

Fear is induced by innate and learned mechanisms involving separate pathways. Here, we used an olfactory-mediated innate-fear versus learned-fear paradigm to investigate how these pathways are integrated. Notably, prior presentation of innate-fear stimuli inhibited learned-freezing response, but not vice versa. Whole-brain mapping and pharmacological screening indicated that serotonin-2A receptor (Htr2a)-expressing cells in the central amygdala (CeA) control both innate and learned freezing, but in opposing directions. In vivo fiber photometry analyses in freely moving mice indicated that innate but not learned-fear stimuli suppressed the activity of Htr2a-expressing CeA cells. Artificial inactivation of these cells upregulated innate-freezing response and downregulated learned-freezing response. Thus, Htr2a-expressing CeA cells serve as a hierarchy generator, prioritizing innate fear over learned fear.

SCIENCE: chemogenetics and neuronal ablation to deconstruct itch; plus a new hM4Di mouse

From the Goulding lab:

Mice in which dorsal NPY::Cre-derived neurons are selectively ablated or silenced develop mechanical itch without an increase in sensitivity to chemical itch or pain. This chronic itch state is histamine-independent and is transmitted independently of neurons that express the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor. Thus, our studies reveal a dedicated spinal cord inhibitory pathway that gates the transmission of mechanical itch.

NATURE: Combining the awesome power of yeast with computation to discover new ligands for GPCRs

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Not a chemogenetic paper but a chemical genetic paper which again proves that yeast are most awesome!

Thanks to Ethan Perlstein for the graphic

At least 120 non-olfactory G-protein-coupled receptors in the human genome are ‘orphans’ for which endogenous ligands are unknown, and many have no selective ligands, hindering the determination of their biological functions and clinical relevance. Among these is GPR68, a proton receptor that lacks small molecule modulators for probing its biology. Using yeast-based screens against GPR68, here we identify the benzodiazepine drug lorazepam as a non-selective GPR68 positive allosteric modulator. More than 3,000 GPR68 homology models were refined to recognize lorazepam in a putative allosteric site. Docking 3.1 million molecules predicted new GPR68 modulators, many of which were confirmed in functional assays. One potent GPR68 modulator, ogerin, suppressed recall in fear conditioning in wild-type but not in GPR68-knockout mice. The same approach le…

Chemo- and opto-induced remapping of place cells

The pharmacologically selective designer Gi-protein-coupled muscarinic receptor hM4D or the light-responsive microbial proton pump archaerhodopsin (ArchT) was expressed in MEC, and place cells were recorded after application of the inert ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) or light at appropriate wavelengths. CNO or light caused partial inactivation of the MEC. The inactivation was followed by substantial remapping in the hippocampus, without disruption of the spatial firing properties of individual neurons. The results point to MEC input as an element of the mechanism for remapping in place cells.

Paper here

Chemogenetic Deconstruction of Basal forebrain control of wakefulness and cortical rhythms--Nature Communications

Wakefulness, along with fast cortical rhythms and associated cognition, depend on the basal forebrain (BF). BF cholinergic cell loss in dementia and the sedative effect of anti-cholinergic drugs have long implicated these neurons as important for cognition and wakefulness. The BF also contains intermingled inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic cell groups whose exact neurobiological roles are unclear. Here we show that genetically targeted chemogenetic activation of BF cholinergic or glutamatergic neurons in behaving mice produced significant effects on state consolidation and/or the electroencephalogram but had no effect on total wake. Similar activation of BF GABAergic neurons produced sustained wakefulness and high-frequency cortical rhythms, whereas chemogenetic inhibition increased sleep. Our findings reveal a major contribution of BF GABAergic neurons to wakefulness and the fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. These findings may be clinically applicable t…